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Child Protective Services (CPS) is the name of a governmental agency in many states of the United States responsible for providing child protection, which includes responding to reports of child abuse or neglect. Some states use other names, often attempting to reflect more family-centered (as opposed to child-centered) practices, such as "Department of Children & Family Services" (DCFS). CPS is also known by the name of "Department of Social Services" (DSS) or simply "Social Services."

Origin & History

In 1692, states and municipalities identified care for abused and neglected children as the responsibility of local government and private institutions. In 1696, The Kingdom of England first used the legal principle of parens patriae, which gave the royal crown care of "charities, infants, idiots, and lunatics returned to the chancery." This principal of parens patriae has been identified as the statutory basis for U.S. governmental intervention in families' child rearing practices.

In 1825, states enacted laws giving social-welfare agencies the right to remove neglected children from their parents and from the streets. These children were placed in almshouses, in orphanages and with other families. In 1835, the Humane Society founded the National Federation of Child Rescue agencies to investigate child maltreatment. In the late-19th century, private child protection agencies – modeled after existing animal protection organizations – developed to investigate reports of child maltreatment, present cases in court and advocate for child welfare legislation.

In 1853, the Children's Aid Society was founded in response to the problem of orphaned or abandoned children living in New York.[1] In 1909, President Theodore Roosevelt convened the White House Conference on Child Dependency, which created a publicly funded volunteer organization to "establish and publicize standards of child care."[6] By 1926, 18 states had some version of county child welfare boards whose purpose was to coordinate public and private child related work.[3] Issues of abuse and neglect were addressed in the Social Security Act in 1930, which provided funding for intervention for “neglected and dependent children in danger of becoming delinquent.” [4]

In 1912, the federal Children's Bureau was established to manage federal child welfare efforts, including services related to child maltreatment. In 1958, amendments to the Social Security Act mandated that states fund child protection efforts.[1] By the mid-1960s, in response to public concern that resulted from this article, 49 U.S. states passed child-abuse reporting laws. In 1973, Congress took the first steps toward enacting federal legislature to address the issue of child abuse. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act[6] was passed in 1974, which required states "to prevent, identify and treat child abuse and neglect."[4]

Several pieces of federal legislation attempted to ease the process of adoption including Adoption Assistance Act;[7] the 1988 Child Abuse Prevention, Adoption, and Family Services Act; and the 1992 Child Abuse, Domestic Violence, Adoption, and Family Services Act.[8] The 1994 Multi-Ethnic Placement Act, which was revised in 1996 to add the Interethnic Placement Provisions, also attempted to promote permanency through adoption, creating regulations that adoptions could not be delayed or denied due to issues of race, color, or national origin of the child or the adoptive parent.[9]

All of these policies led up to the 1997 Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA), much of which guides current practice. Changes in the Adoptions and Safe Families Act showed an interest in both protecting children’s safety and developing permanency.[9] This law requires counties to provide "reasonable efforts" (treatment) to preserve or reunify families, but also shortened time lines required for permanence, leading to termination of parental rights should these efforts fail.[3][9] ASFA introduced the idea of "concurrent planning" which demonstrated attempts to reunify families as the first plan, but to have a back-up plan so as not to delay permanency for children.[10]

CPS Family Court Corruption

The following comes from Petition2Congress, you can click HERE to sign the petition calling congress to investigate the corruption within CPS.

Families are being abused by State CPS and Family Courts through out the United States of America, this is a major issue that needs to be addressed, Families that have had their civil rights violated through family court proceedings and the fact that all due process and constitutional rights are violated and manipulated by family court judges, District Attorneys, and Commissioners of /social services departments as well as CPS workers, and court appointed attorneys that are not working for the clients but have helped incriminate parents.

Also of extreme interest, is obtaining names/phone/location of CPS workers who are falsifying or have falsified documents in court and who have lied in a court setting. The people of New York State and the People of the United States of America demand a full investigation of all departments, and the termination of department until further the people also wish to sue for government entrapment as well as a suit brought against the case workers, family court judges, and district lawyers. The People through discovery have found:

1. The imbalance of funding is creating corruption.

2. Corruption has filtered through all manner of government and related agencies.

3. Judicial decisions violate the public trust.

4. Laws are created and passed that give parens patriae unlimited power not provided by the Constitution.

5. The pendulum has swung to create a monopoly strategy of funding extracted from dwindling Social Services that have been set up to help families in need is devastating families across America.

6. Children's lives are at stake while in the care of government funded agencies, such as rape, sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, mental abuse, and statistics show our children are being killed while in government placements out side of the parental home/or close relatives.

7. That the states are not following guidelines placing children with relatives but are screening them out using different criteria with foster families, or falsifying documents to entrap parents and not keeping the children in the home with parents but removing the children without due process or any true purpose other then to incriminate parents/family members and to insure family is unfit.

8. That pockets of tyranny are going unchecked without recourse.

9. Congress local government/ civil and family courts is not responsive to The People.

10. That The People have been turned away from civil courts, and from family courts higher court of appeals, only to remain battered and bruised by the tyranny of these local government funded courts as the judges, case workers/commissioners and district attorneys mock the outraged parents and children of which they so willingly strip of their civil rights and liberties.

The People are declaring a public health crisis and human rights violation as well as their Civil rights are being stripped and taken from them and their families, as a result of these above atrocities and also In addition, The People find the Parens Patriae to be more than a doctrine but a specialized position created by the government for the government that violates Article 1 Sec 9, 10: No title of nobility or honors shall be granted by the United States. The title extends to the courts, Childrens Administration and public education violating Amendment 14 depriving persons of life, liberty and property without due process. The position applies as a collective.

The People are ordering an investigation of the departments as well as Family courts through out the United States of America and most important in New York State the people of the United States ask that all family court files,case files, court tapes, and videos be put into the investigation, as well as there be a federal lockdown on all CPS and family courts so that no tampering of documents can be done by such agencies, the fact is family court documents will show the fact that they are mishandled and manipulated by these agencies to insure incriminating charges are inevitable and due process is not being carried out, civil rights are violated, all human rights are violated and the United States Constitution is not on the agenda of these agencies. And the people of the United States of America are being abused by these powers.

Examples and Testimonies of Corruption and Fraud

Nancy Schaeffer asserts:
Having worked with probably 300 cases statewide, I am convinced there is no responsibility and no accountability in the system. I have come to the conclusion:

• that poor parents often times are targeted to lose their children because they do not have the where-with-all to hire lawyers and fight the system. Being poor does not mean you are not a good parent or that you do not love your child, or that your child should be removed and placed with strangers;

• that all parents are capable of making mistakes and that making a mistake does not mean your children are always to be removed from the home. Even if the home is not perfect, it is home; and that’s where a child is the safest and where he or she wants to be, with family;

• that parenting classes, anger management classes, counseling referrals, therapy classes and on and on are demanded of parents with no compassion by the system even while they are at work and while their children are separated from them. This can take months or even years and it emotionally devastates both children and parents. Parents are victimized by “the system” that makes a profit for holding children longer and “bonuses” for not returning children;

• that caseworkers and social workers are oftentimes guilty of fraud. They withhold evidence. They fabricate evidence and they seek to terminate parental rights. However, when charges are made against them, the charges are ignored;

• that the separation of families is growing as a business because local governments have grown accustomed to having taxpayer dollars to balance their ever-expanding budgets;

• that Child Protective Service and Juvenile Court can always hide behind a confidentiality clause in order to protect their decisions and keep the funds flowing. There should be open records and “court watches”! Look who is being paid! There are state employees, lawyers, court investigators, court personnel, and judges. There are psychologists, and psychiatrists, counselors, caseworkers, therapists, foster parents, adoptive parents, and on and on. All are looking to the children in state custody to provide job security. Parents do not realize that social workers are the glue that holds “the system” together that funds the court, the child’s attorney, and the multiple other jobs including DFCS’s attorney.

• that The Adoption and the Safe Families Act, set in motion by President Bill Clinton, offered cash “bonuses” to the states for every child they adopted out of foster care. In order to receive the “adoption incentive bonuses” local child protective services need more children. They must have merchandise (children) that sell and you must have plenty of them so the buyer can choose. Some counties are known to give a $4,000 bonus for each child adopted and an additional $2,000 for a “special needs” child. Employees work to keep the federal dollars flowing;

• that there is double dipping. The funding continues as long as the child is out of the home. When a child in foster care is placed with a new family then “adoption bonus funds” are available. When a child is placed in a mental health facility and is on 16 drugs per day, like two children of a constituent of mine, more funds are involved;

• that there are no financial resources and no real drive to unite a family and help keep them together;

• that the incentive for social workers to return children to their parents quickly after taking them has disappeared and who in protective services will step up to the plate and say, “This must end! No one, because they are all in the system together and a system with no leader and no clear policies will always fail the children. Look at the waste in government that is forced upon the tax payer;

• that the “Policy Manuel” is considered “the last word” for DFCS. However, it is too long, too confusing, poorly written and does not take the law into consideration;

• that if the lives of children were improved by removing them from their homes, there might be a greater need for protective services, but today all children are not always safer. Children, of whom I am aware, have been raped and impregnated in foster care and the head of a Foster Parents Association in my District was recently arrested because of child molestation;

• that some parents are even told if they want to see their children or grandchildren, they must divorce their spouse. Many, who are under privileged, feeling they have no option, will divorce and then just continue to live together. This is an anti-family policy, but parents will do anything to get their children home with them.

• fathers, (non-custodial parents) I must add, are oftentimes treated as criminals without access to their own children and have child support payments strangling the very life out of them;

• that the Foster Parents Bill of Rights does not bring out that a foster parent is there only to care for a child until the child can be returned home. Many Foster Parents today use the Foster Parent Bill of Rights to hire a lawyer and seek to adopt the child from the real parents, who are desperately trying to get their child home and out of the system;

• that tax dollars are being used to keep this gigantic system afloat, yet the victims, parents, grandparents, guardians and especially the children, are charged for the system’s services.

• that grandparents have called from all over the State of Georgia trying to get custody of their grandchildren. DFCS claims relatives are contacted, but there are cases that prove differently. Grandparents who lose their grandchildren to strangers have lost their own flesh and blood. The children lose their family heritage and grandparents, and parents too, lose all connections to their heirs.

• that The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect in 1998 reported that six times as many children died in foster care than in the general public and that once removed to official “safety”, these children are far more likely to suffer abuse, including sexual molestation than in the general population.

• That according to the California Little Hoover Commission Report in 2003, 30% to 70% of the children in California group homes do not belong there and should not have been removed from their homes.

Nancy Schaeffer's Final Remarks

On my desk are scores of cases of exhausted families and troubled children. It has been beyond me to turn my back on these suffering, crying, and sometimes beaten down individuals. We are mistreating the most innocent. Child Protective Services have become adult centered to the detriment of children. No longer is judgment based on what the child needs or who the child wants to be with or what is really best for the whole family; it is some adult or bureaucrat who makes the decisions, based often on just hearsay, without ever consulting a family member, or just what is convenient, profitable, or less troublesome for a director of DFCS.

I have witnessed such injustice and harm brought to these families that I am not sure if I even believe reform of the system is possible! The system cannot be trusted. It does not serve the people. It obliterates families and children simply because it has the power to do so. Children deserve better. Families deserve better. It’s time to pull back the curtain and set our children and families free.

“Speak up for those who cannot speak for themselves, for the rights of all who are destitute. Speak up and judge fairly; defend the rights of the poor and the needy” Proverbs 31:8-9 [11]

This woman, Nancy Schaefer didn't just lose her job, for battling CPS. She and her husband were murdered.

Statistics & Information in support of CPS

Clearly there is a need for such a government agency, as there are children who are abused and molested. However, an investigation followed by serious reform must occur. The agency must NOT operate as an industry of capitalist nature. The agency MUST have oversight. First are some statistics supporting the need for such an agency. The following statistics come from the 23rd year of Reporting Child Maltreatment 2012. You can click HERE to read the entire report. [12]

Reports & Allegations

During FFY 2012, CPS agencies received an estimated 3.4 million referrals involving approximately 6.3 million children. The national rate of reports that received a disposition was 28.3 per 1,000 children in the national population. For 2012, professionals made three-fifths (58.7%) of reports of alleged child abuse and neglect. The term professional means that the person had contact with the alleged child maltreatment victim as part of his or her job. This term includes teachers, police officers, lawyers, and social services staff. Nonprofessionals—including friends, neighbors, and relatives—submitted one-fifth of reports (18.0%). Unclassified sources submitted the remainder of reports (23.3%). Unclassified includes anonymous, “other,” and unknown report sources.

For FFY 2012, approximately 3.8 million (duplicate count) children were the subjects of at least one report. The duplicate count of child victims tallies a child each time he or she was found to be a victim. For FFY 2012, 51 states reported 678,810 (unique count) victims of child abuse and neglect. The unique count of child victims tallies a child only once regardless of the number of times he or she was found to be a victim during the reporting year. The unique victim rate was 9.2 victims per 1,000 children in the population. See the table below for sources of reports, and note how many states are reporting for each category..

Victim Demographics

Using this rate, the national estimate of unique victims for FFY 2012 was 686,000. Victim demographics include:

  • Victims in their first year of life had the highest rate of victimization at 21.9 per 1,000 children of the same age in the national population.
  • The majority of victims were comprised of three races or ethnicities—White (44.0%), Hispanic (21.8%), and African-American (21.0%).
  • Boys accounted for 48.7 percent and girls accounted for 50.9 percent of victims.

    As in prior years, the greatest percentage of children suffered from neglect. A child may have suffered from multiple forms of maltreatment and was counted once for each maltreatment type. CPS investigations or assessments determined that for unique victims:

  • more than 75 percent (78.3%) suffered neglect
  • more than 15 percent (18.3%) suffered physical abuse
  • fewer than 10 percent (9.3%) suffered sexual abuse

    Child fatalities are the most tragic consequence of maltreatment. For FFY 2012, 49 states reported 1,593 fatalities. Based on these data, a nationally estimated 1,640 children died from abuse and neglect. Analyses were performed on the number of child fatalities for whom case-level data were obtained:

  • The national rate of child fatalities was 2.20 deaths per 100,000 children.
  • Nearly three-quarters (70.3%) of all child fatalities were younger than 3 years old.
  • Boys had a higher child fatality rate than girls at 2.54 boys per 100,000 boys in the population. Girls died of abuse and neglect at a rate of 1.94 per 100,000 girls in the population.
  • Nearly 90 percent (85.5%) of child fatalities were comprised of White (38.3%), African-American (31.9%), and Hispanic (15.3%) victims.
  • Four-fifths (80.0%) of child fatalities were caused by one or both parents.

    Perpetrator Demographics

    A perpetrator is the person who is responsible for the abuse or neglect of a child. Fifty states reported 512,040 unique perpetrators. The unique count tallies a perpetrator only once, regardless of the number of times the perpetrator is associated with maltreating a child. The following analyses were conducted using a unique count of perpetrators:

  • Four-fifths (82.2%) of perpetrators were between the ages of 18 and 44 years.
  • More than one-half (53.5%) of perpetrators were women, 45.3 percent of perpetrators were men, and 1.1 percent were of unknown sex.

    Using a duplicated count of perpetrators, meaning a perpetrator is counted each time the same perpetrator is associated with maltreating a child, the total duplicated count of perpetrators was 893,659. For 2012:

  • Four-fifths (80.3%) of duplicated perpetrators were parents.
  • Of the duplicated perpetrators who were parents, 88.5 percent were the biological parents.

    What Happens Next?

    What happens after a report is filed? State policy usually establishes guidelines or requirements for initiating a CPS response to a report. The response time is defined as the time between the receipt of a referral alleging maltreatment to the state or local agency and face-to-face contact with the alleged victim (when appropriate), or with another person who can provide information on the allegation(s). States have either a single timeframe, which applies to responding to all reports, or different timeframes for responding to different types of reports. High-priority responses are often stipulated to occur within 24 hours; lower priority responses may occur within several days.

    Using the data from the same 39 states that are able to report on workers with specialized functions, investigation and alternative response workers completed an average of 69 CPS responses per worker for FFY 2012.

    Each state defines the types of child abuse and neglect in its statutes and policies. Child protective services (CPS) agencies determine the appropriate response for the alleged maltreatment based on those statutes and policies. In most states, the majority of reports receive an investigation. An investigation response results in a determination (also known as a disposition) about the alleged child maltreatment. The dispositions are:

  • Substantiated: An investigation disposition that concludes that the allegation of maltreatment or risk of maltreatment was supported or founded by state law or policy.
  • Unsubstantiated: An investigation disposition that determines that there was not sufficient evidence under state law to conclude or suspect that the child was maltreated or at-risk of being maltreated
  • Indicated: A disposition that concludes that maltreatment could not be substantiated under state law or policy, but there was reason to suspect that at least one child may have been maltreated or was at-risk of maltreatment. This is applicable only to states that distinguish between substantiated and indicated dispositions.
  • Intentionally false: A disposition that indicates a conclusion that the person who made the allegation of maltreatment knew that the allegation was not true.
  • Closed with no finding: A disposition that does not conclude with a specific finding because the CPS response could not be completed. This disposition is often assigned when CPS is unable to locate the alleged victim.
  • Other: States may also use the category of “other,” if none of the above is applicable. Several states use this disposition when the results of an investigation are “uncertain,” “inconclusive,” or “unable to be determined.”

    As you can see in the pie chart above, approximately 58% of cases investigated result in an Unsubstantiated disposition. What are some of the reasons or contributing factors why CPS Agents find little to no abuse? This list could go on..... and on forever.

  • Agents who never had children and don't understand that a few toys in the corner of the room is not a hazardous mess. How can anyone begin to determine what is to be a parent, good or bad without being one themselves? Being a parent ought to be a prerequisite to employment as a CPS employee. How can you claim to be an expert in a field which you have no real experience of your own?!

  • Agents are not trained in real evidence recognition. In fact, no Agent in CPS has any training in evidence, the Constitution or criminal justice. They are given anywhere from 3 to 6 months of training, being taught that it is ok to break into a Home without probable cause or exigent circumstances. a panel of experts in the field of child welfare assembled to study the operations of the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services in the wake of a lawsuit against the agency. The panel found that: "DCFS caseworkers are uninformed or misinformed about internal resources and procedures of DCFS, as well as about DCFS philosophy and job performance expectations." The panel also found caseworkers lacking in the essential skills of family assessment; service planning; family intervention techniques; child development; distinguishing the differences between poverty and neglect; and in their understanding of the legal rights and entitlements of the families and wards they served.[13]

  • Agents are trained to use subjective speculation and not objective factual reporting. Upon what evidence did child welfare professionals decide to place these children in foster care? What factors influenced the decision? Were the decisions reliable, consistent, fair?

  • The Agents do not get psychological evaluations. A number of Agents who were abused as a child themselves see abuse in every home they go into, even if it's not there. A thorough and intensive psychological evaluation ought to be mandated on every candidate applying to become a CPS agent. While some may say that a history of abuse, neglect or molestation would make a person more qualified to become a CPS agent; they could also be wrong. This is not an irrefutable fact, and we cannot afford to take a risk like this with our children.

  • Most States do not require Agents to have a degree in Social Sciences. Any degree will do, doesn't even have to be related to the field. HERE is a link to an example of the job requirements. The bar needs to be lifted when it comes to job requirements and qualifications.

  • The Agency has no checks and balances. A field Agent can lie to a judge or police officer with absolutely no proof and have it entered as factual evidence in a court of law! Lying under oath is perjury, a felony offense for everyone else. Add to this the lack of clear definitions as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect, coupled with lack of clearly defined intake guidelines, and it becomes clear why Child Protective Services cannot deliver on its mandate to protect children–even as it continues to needlessly destroy families.

  • Agents are trained to believe they are immune from the authority of the First Amendment, Fourth Amendment, Fifth Amendment, Sixth Amendment and Fourteenth Amendment. They violate this in every investigation done nationwide.

    It's unconstitutional for CPS to conduct an investigation and interview a child on private property without exigent circumstances or probable cause.
    - Doe et al, v. Heck et al (No. 01-3648, 2003 US App. Lexis 7144)

    All CPS workers in the United States are subject to the 4th and 14th Amendment
    - Walsh v. Erie County Dept. of Job and Family Services, 3:01-cv-7588

    Police officers and social workers are not immune for coercing or forcing entry into a person's home without a search warrant.
    Calabretta v. Floyd (9th Cir. 1999)

    The mere possibility of danger does not constitute an emergency or exigent circumstance that would justify a forced warrantless entry and a warrantless seizure of a child.
    Hurlman v. Rice (2nd Cir. 1991)

    The Fourth Amendment protection against unreasonable searches and seizures extends beyond criminal investigations and includes conduct by social workers in the context of a child neglect/abuse investigation.
    Lenz v. Winburn (11th Cir. 1995)

    Making false statements made to obtain a warrant, when the false statements were necessary to the finding of probable cause on which the warrant was based, violates the Fourth Amendment's warrant requirement.
    Aponte Matos v. Toledo Davilla (1st Cir. 1998)

    Here are some statistics and sources to support the fact children are often better left with family:
    Number of Cases per 100,000 children in the United States. These numbers come from The National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (NCCAN) in Washington.
    CPS- Physical Abuse (160) Sexual Abuse (112) Neglect (410) Medical Neglect (14) Fatalities (6.4)
    Parents- Physical Abuse (59) Sexual Abuse (13) Neglect (241) Medical Neglect (12) Fatalities (1.5)

    As you can see, children are abused far more in care than at home. The calculated average is for every 1 abused child removed from an abusive home, there are 17 unabused children removed from loving non-offending homes nationwide.

    Proposed Solutions

    The pros and cons of Child Protective Services has been established. It is clear as day that we not only need such an agency, but that it needs an independent review and reform on a grand scale. Here are a list of proposed solutions as listed in the petition to congress:

  • Child Abuse is a Crime, not a touchy feely civil complaint and should be investigated as a crime.

  • Have the abuse allegations investigated by a Detective or Police Officer, who are trained for this as a career, whereas CPS workers are not. All investigations are joint ones with said Officers of the Law and with warrants properly issues under probable cause.

  • Re-train Agents to respect and obey the laws of the Constitution of the United States. If a family is guilty of abuse, a legal investigation will find it.

  • Repeal the Mondale Act, Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act, Title IV-E rewards to CPS from Social Security and the American Safe Families Act. Remember, they are not what the title sounds like and has been the root core of many loving homes losing their children to a system that will abuse them.

  • Make CPS legally investigate those who sign up to be foster parents. They do not do this today, and many foster parent who want the money for fostering them are actually child abusers who never get caught!

  • All interviews to be audio and video recorded just like it happens with the police!

  • Hold CPS Agents and foster parents and the records keeper responsible for every child who vanishes or dies in their care for their location.

  • Also investigate the person or persons reporting the abuse, and if done maliciously with intent to disrupt a family, prosecute the reporter to the fullest extent of the Law regarding making false claims to Government Agencies to affect an unnecessary and costly investigation.

  • Abuse is a Crime, guarantee the accused retain their right to face their accusers in a court of law. As the system currently is, this is not done.

  • The Children are to be tracked on a weekly basis, so no more children vanish in the system.

  • If a disabled, mentally retarded or sick Child is put into Foster Care, the Child's current Physician will need to provide a copy of the diagnosis and treatment, and medications, if any, will be provided as prescribed by the Physician. All appointments must be kept while in Foster Care. Any violations without a very good reason will result in the Foster Parents losing their certification for Foster Care.

  • If a Foster Child dies while in Foster Care, there will be an Investigation by the FBI and all parties responsible for the Death of a Child will be prosecuted to the fullest extent of the law.

  • There will be a National Database where all known abusers are recorded and can be accessed by Law Enforcement. Everyone who is found not guilty won't have their Convictions and Abuse Reports listed. It will be illegal to keep records of any sort on innocent individuals or families. If they are convicted in a court of law by a jury of their peers, then the report of abuse they are guilty of will be the only report listed.


    1. "Children's Aid Society. "History".".
    2. "Axinn, June; Levin,Herman (1997). Social Welfare: a history of the American response to need (4th ed.). White Plains, New York: Longman. ISBN 9780801317002.".
    3. " Ellett, Alberta J.; Leighninger, Leslie (10 August 2006). "What Happened? An historical perspective of the de-professionalization of child welfare practice with implications for policy and practice". Journal of Public Child Welfare".
    4. "Crosson-Tower, Cynthia (1999). Understanding child abuse and neglect (4th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.".
    5. Laird & Michael (2006).
    6. "Administration for Children & Families. "Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) of 1974 P.L. 93-247". Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.".
    7. "Administration for Children & Families. "Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 P.L. 96-272". Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.".
    8. "Administration for Children & Families (2011). "Major Federal Legislation Concerned with Child Protection, Child Welfare, and Adoption". Child Welfare Information Gateway. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services.".
    9. " Lincroft, Y.; Resher, J. (2006). "Undercounted and Underserved: Immigrant and refugee families in the child welfare system". Baltimore, MD: The Annie E. Casey Foundation.".
    10. "Mitchell, Lorelei B.; Barth, Richard P.; Green, Rebecca; Wall, Ariana; Biemer, Paul; Berrick, Jill Duerr; Webb, Mary Bruce. "Child Welfare Reform in the United States: Findings from a Local Agency Survey". Child Welfare 84 (1): 5–24 ".
    11. "Nancy Schaefer on Child Protective Services".
    12. "23rd year of Reporting Child Maltreatment 2012".
    13. "United States District Court for the Northern District of Illinois, Eastern Division, Final Consolidated Report of Rule 706 Panel of Experts, B.H. v. Gordon Johnson, No. 88 C 5599, January 1991.".