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Defined

The term chemtrail is a portmanteau of the words "chemical" and "trail", just as contrail is a contraction of "condensation trail".[1] These condensation trails are the result of normal emissions of water vapor from piston engines and jet engines at high altitudes in which the water vapor condenses into a visible cloud. Contrails are formed when hot humid air from the engines mixes with the colder surrounding air. The rate at which contrails dissipate is entirely dependent on weather conditions and altitude. If the atmosphere is near saturation, the contrail may exist for some time. Conversely, if the atmosphere is dry, the contrail will dissipate quickly.[2]

Climate engineering, also referred to as geoengineering, is the deliberate and large-scale intervention in the Earth’s climatic system with the aim of reducing global warming.[?3][4][5] Climate engineering has two categories of technologies- carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management. Carbon dioxide removal addresses a cause of climate change by removing one of the greenhouse gases from the atmosphere. Solar radiation management attempts to offset effects of greenhouse gases by causing the Earth to absorb less solar radiation.

Chemtrails are a technique used in a Solar Radiation Management Program ( SRM ). These programs modify the atmosphere either by enhancing natural processes such as the sulfur cycle, or by using artificial techniques.

Methods and Techniques

Methods based on increasing the aerosol content in the lower stratosphere for climate modification were proposed by a Russian scientist, Mikhail Budyko in 1974.[6] Stratospheric sulfate aerosols as proposed by Paul Crutzen,[7] with the purpose to modify the Earth's albedo with reflective or absorptive materials spread over portions of its surface. This would typically be achieved using hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide, delivered using artillery, aircraft (such as the high-flying F15-C) or balloons.[7][8][9][10] [11] (Alternative approaches using photophoretic particles have been proposed.[12]) Ozone depletion is a risk of such techniques,[13] but only if high enough quantities of aerosols drift to, or are deposited in, polar stratospheric clouds before the levels of CFCs and other ozone destroying gases fall naturally to safe levels because CFCs can settle on larger sulfate particles, increasing their ozone destroying potential.[14] This proposal, not unlike the others, carries with it considerable risks, including increased drought[15] or acid rain.[16]

Sulfate is the most commonly proposed aerosol for climate engineering, since there is a good natural analogue with volcanic eruptions. Explosive eruptions inject large amounts of sulfur dioxide gas into the stratosphere, which form sulfate aerosol. Studies of the Earth's climate have shown that such aerosol can achieve significant cooling. Sulfate aerosols have been shown to enhance ozone depletion. However, other aerosol types may be more efficient at cooling the climate or less damaging to the ozone layer. Such aerosols include the highly reflective titanium dioxide.

United States Patent 5003186 suggested that tiny metal flakes could be "added to the fuel of jet airliners, so that the particles would be emitted from the jet engine exhaust while the airliner was at its cruising altitude." Alternative proposals, not known to have been published in peer-reviewed journals, include the addition of silicon compounds to jet fuel to make silicon dioxide particles in the exhaust.

A more sophisticated approach, using multi-layered nanoparticles (consisting of aluminium and barium titanate), was published by David Keith in 2010. He suggests utilizing the effects of photophoresis to increase the amount of time the aerosols stay airborne.[17]

Conspiracy Theory?

The term is used often and typically with derogatory intent. A conspiracy theory is an explanatory proposition that accuses two or more persons, a group, or an organization of having caused or covered up, through secret planning and deliberate action, an illegal or harmful event or situation. Chemtrails and Geo-engineering are not a theory, but a conspiracy? That is the part truly hard to prove. What we CAN prove, is that geo-engineering was originally intended to be used as a possibly military application in the future[18], and as one of a few ways to help combat global warming also known as climate change. The original intentions of an action do not mean it is still used with that in mind today. Even if you have the best intentions in mind, that doesn't exempt you from safe practices.

It is not uncommon for mankind to seek a solution to a problem and be eager to accept it before thoroughly making sure it is not only feasible, but safe. Does it work? GREAT! Is it safe to use? Well seems like it is for now. What we typically fail to do, is long term testing and what it can do to our eco-systems as well as our own species generations down the road. Another example of putting profits before people and kicking the can down the road for someone else to deal with it. How can we not see prolonging a problem is leaving it up to our children and future generations to resolve?









References


1. "chemtrail". Oxford English Dictionary (Third ed.). Oxford University Press. December 2011. (subscription required)
2. "Contrails Facts". US Air Force. 13 October 2005. Archived from the original on 6 March 2013.
3. United States Government Accountability Office (GAO) (July 2011) (PDF). ?Climate Engineering: Technical Status, Future Directions, and Potential Responses? (Report). Center for Science, Technology, and Engineering. p. 3. http://psych.cf.ac.uk/understandingrisk/docs/spice.pdf. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
4. Royal Society (September 2009) (PDF). ?Geoengineering the Climate: Science, Governance and Uncertainty? (Report). p. 1. ISBN 978-0-85403-773-5. http://royalsociety.org/uploadedFiles/Royal_Society_Content/policy/publications/2009/8693.pdf. Retrieved 2011-12-01.
5. Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming: Mitigation, Adaptation, and the Science Base (1992), Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public Policy (COSEPUP)
6. Budyko, M. I., Climate Changes, American Geophysical Union, Washington, DC, English translation of 1974 Russian volume, 1977, p. 244
7. Crutzen, P. J. (2006). "Albedo Enhancement by Stratospheric Sulfur Injections: A Contribution to Resolve a Policy Dilemma?". Climatic Change 77 (3–4): 211–220. doi:10.1007/s10584-006-9101-y. edit
8. Davidson, P.; Burgoyne, C.; Hunt, H.; Causier, M. (2012). "Lifting options for stratospheric aerosol geoengineering: Advantages of tethered balloon systems". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 370 (1974): 4263. Bibcode:2012RSPTA.370.4263D. doi:10.1098/rsta.2011.0639. edit
9. "Programmes | Five Ways To Save The World". BBC News. 2007-02-20. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
10. "Can a Million Tons of Sulfur Dioxide Combat Climate Change?". Wired.com. 23 June 2008. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
11. "NOAA Status Alert". Pmel.noaa.gov. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
12. Keith, D. W. (2010). "Photophoretic levitation of engineered aerosols for geoengineering". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107 (38): 16428–16431. doi:10.1073/pnas.1009519107. PMC 2944714. PMID 20823254. edit
13. "Geoengineering side effects : Heating the tropical tropopause by sedimenting sulphur aerosol?". Cosis.net. Retrieved 2013-10-16.
14. Hargreves, Ben (2010). "Protecting the Planet". Professional Engineering (Professional Engineering Publishing) 23 (19): 18–22. ISSN 0953-6639.
15. Catherine Brahic (2 August 2007). "'Sunshade' for global warming could cause drought". Retrieved 29 April 2009.
16. David Over. "Sulphur screens - 21st Century Challenges". Royal Geographic Society with IBG. Retrieved 29 April 2009.
17. Keith, David W.: Photophoretic levitation of engineered aerosols for geoengineering, PNAS, September 07. 2010
18 "Weather as a Force Multiplier: Owning the Weather in 2025". Fas.org. Retrieved 24 July 2009. http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/GISSTemperature/giss_temperature2.php